What is UNFCCC and COP 21 Paris (Part 1) 什么是“联合国气候变化框架公约”和“巴黎第二十一届联合国气候变化大会”?(第一篇)

 

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What is UNFCCC and COP 21 Paris (Part 1)
什么是“联合国气候变化框架公约”和“巴黎第二十一届联合国气候变化大会”?(第一篇)

By Edward Shen | 沈埃迪

COP 21 stands for the 21st Conference of the Parties. The first COP took place in Berlin in 1995; at COP 3 the famous Kyoto Protocol was adopted; followed by the formulation of the Montreal Action Plan at COP 11; COP 15 in Copenhagen established a set of COP decisions (Cancún) but only managed to attain non-legally binding pledges; Durban hosted COP 17 and created the Green Climate Fund, 2014’s COP 20 in Lima conducted talks with the “Lima Call for Climate Action”. This year’s COP 21 is held in Paris and is billed as the most important climate meeting of the world community ever.

The goal is to have country governments commit to taking steps to cut carbon dioxide emissions so as to limit planetary warming to within 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial revolution temperature baseline (fig I).

Chart1_FB

This series of conferences is taken as the political response the international community reacted to earth’s climate change which began at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 where a UN Framework on Climate Change was adopted. The “Rio Convention” (UNFCCC) set out a framework for action and system of governance aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases (GHGs) to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system – anthropogenic climate disruption (ACD). The convention opened for signature at Rio in 1992 and entered into force in 1994 by 195 parties.

To be continued in part 2…

COP21 即第二十一届联合国气候变化大会。 第一届联合国气候变化大会于1995年在柏林举行;第三届则通过了著名的《京都议定书》; 而在第十一届气候大会制定了“蒙特利尔行动计划”;第十五届哥本哈根联合国气候变化大会有达成决议,但只为一套不具法律约束力的承诺; 德班主办了第十七届会议,并创立了绿色气候基金; 2014年的第二十届秘鲁的利马气候大会,传达出“利马呼吁气候行动”; 今年第二十一届气候大会在巴黎举行,被标榜为至今最重要的世界气候会议。

会议的目标是督促各国政府落实采取措施减少二氧化碳的排放,以限制地球气候温度的上升在2摄氏度之内,此温度的计算以工业革命前的气候温度为基线(图1)。

这一系列的会议被视为国际社会对地球气候改变作出的政治形式回应,这回应开始自1992年里约的地球峰会上,并制定了一个气候变化的行动框架和管理制度 (联合国气候变化框架公约) ,旨在稳定大气层的温室气体浓度(GHGs),以避免危险的人类性污染引致的气候系统变化 -人为气候破坏(ACD)。 这一协议由195个缔约成员于1992年公开签署,并于1994年正式生效。

第二篇待续…

 

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